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Course Desciption

Designed to present the fundamental physics principles required for an understanding of the production of radiation, interaction of radiation with matter and the varying imaging and therapeutic modalities. This course enables the students to know the nature of electromagnetic and spectrum of radiation, waves and quanta properties of electromagnetic radiations, fundamentals of radio activity.

Textbook(s)

(1) Meredith and Massey, (Fundamental Physics of Radiology) (2) Ashworth, (X-ray Physics & Equipment).

Course Objectives

The candidate should be able to demonstrate an understanding of :- The structure of the atom, the types of radiation and the modes of radioactive decay. The important electron and photon interactions with matter and state how they vary with energy and properties of the material. Attenuation in terms of absorption, scatters, HVL, and understand the inverse square law. The basic physics of the production of x-rays. Radiation quantities and units activity, Kerma, absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and the relationships between these quantities. The biological effects of radiation on tissue. Stochastic and deterministic effects of radiation Radiation risk, risk values and understand how factors such as age affect these values. The concept of radiation risk from medical exposures to patients. The requirements for the protection of staff and members of the public arising from their use of radiation and the extent to which they are . The UK regulations governing the medical exposure of an individual and of their own and other people's responsibilities . Their own responsibilities regarding the restriction of the environmental impact of their use of radiation measures of image quality. The basic physics of image receptors. The physics of CT imaging with particular reference to factors affecting image quality and dose. Nuclear medicine physics with particular reference to factors affecting image quality and dose.

Topics Covered

Outline of the atomic structure, electromagnetic spectrum of radiations, waves and quanta, properties of electromagnetic radiations, fundamentals of radioactivity. (Light): Intensity and quality, spectrum of white light, line spectra, photoelectric effect, photocell, fluorescence. (Laser): Fundamentals of laser. (X-ray) : Production, intensity and quality, continuous and characteristic spectra, effects of variation of tube voltage and current, filters, etc. (Interaction of Radiation with matter). (Pressure of Radiation with Matter) Processes of interaction, secondary electron emission and Ionization of matter, energy absorbed from X-rays. Scatter factors affecting transmission of a homogeneous beam through an object. Geometry, thickness, wave-length of beam composition of the object, transmission through body tissues, transmission of a heterogeneous X-ray beam. Reduction in intensity due to absorption and the inverse-square law, filtration, relative amount of scattered radiation during transmission through body tissues, and the physics of the radiation.

Class/Laboratory Schedule

Tuotorial, Practical.

Computer Applications

None.