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Course Desciption

Designed to present the fundamental physics principles required for an understanding of the production of radiation, interaction of radiation with matter and the varying imaging and therapeutic modalities. This course enables the students to know the nature of electromagnetic and spectrum of radiation, waves and quanta properties of electromagnetic radiations, fundamentals of radio activity.

Prerequisit

RAd 045.

Textbook(s)

(1) Meredith and Massey, (Fundamental Physics of Radiology) (2) Ashworth, (X-ray Physics & Equipment).

Course Objectives

The candidate should be able to demonstrate an understanding of :- The structure of the atom, the types of radiation and the modes of radioactive decay. The important electron and photon interactions with matter and state how they vary with energy and properties of the material. Attenuation in terms of absorption, scatters, HVL, and understand the inverse square law. The basic physics of the production of x-rays. Radiation quantities and units activity, Kerma, absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and the relationships between these quantities. The biological effects of radiation on tissue. Stochastic and deterministic effects of radiation Radiation risk, risk values and understand how factors such as age affect these values. The concept of radiation risk from medical exposures to patients. The requirements for the protection of staff and members of the public arising from their use of radiation and the extent to which they are . The UK regulations governing the medical exposure of an individual and of their own and other people's responsibilities . Their own responsibilities regarding the restriction of the environmental impact of their use of radiation measures of image quality. The basic physics of image receptors. The physics of CT imaging with particular reference to factors affecting image quality and dose. Nuclear medicine physics with particular reference to factors affecting image quality and dose.

Topics Covered

(Biological effects of radiation) General actions of ionization, Biologic damage Determination of the quality and quantity of ionization of ionization on the degree of radiographic response, Uniformity of dose and the response of tissues and organisms to the total body irradiation factors characterizing the classical radiation syndromes. (Health physics radiation instrumentation). Types propose, characteristics advantage devices Ionizing chamber, thimble chamber, Geiger-Muller detector, and Semiconductor detectors scintillation detectors, electrometers, pulse amplifiers, channel and multi-channel analyzers, statistical fluctuations. Probability, poison's Distribution and the standard deviation. (X-ray Measurements) Intensity , dose-rate and their measurements, effects of X-rays which may be used for measurements, reason for choice of air-ionization, the roentgen, the Rad and the Rem, the divert, simple principles of dose-meters, the fluorescent effect of X-rays, the photographic film as a dose-meters, X-ray quality specification and measurement, Peak Hv, HVT, routine methods of checking quality.

Class/Laboratory Schedule

Tuotorials, Tests ,Practicals.

Computer Applications

None.